Models of the ML, GL and R-Class models produced between 2004 and 2015 are affected, it said.
About 70,000 of them are in Germany.
"We have found that in some of those vehicles, the function of the brake booster could be affected by advanced corrosion in the joint area of the housing," Mercedes said.
This could result in an increase in the brake pedal force needed to decelerate the vehicle and/or to a potentially increased stopping distance, it added.
Transport Canada says in its recall notice of 31,577 affected vehicles that "in rare cases of severe corrosion, the brake booster could separate completely and cause a loss of brakes."
According to the federal safety agency, Mercedes-Benz advises owners "to stop driving your vehicle immediately."
Mercedes is starting the recall immediately.